Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are critical to diagnose, especially in initial stages. Specifically, in case of lupus, particular antibodies aimed at antigens situated in the nucleus of cells appear, including the anti-Ro/SSA. These anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are found in the blood prior to other autoantibodies associated with lupus, and even can be found without the presence of symptoms.
As clarified by ángel Maquieira, researcher, Valencia’s Polytechnic University, related to the Molecular Recognition and Technological Development Institute, the tests presently employed to find out the presence of immunologic bodies are based on finding autoantibodies using the ELISA technique. However, this assessment technique is not very sensitive. This restricts the ability to disclose the very low amounts of such antibodies that are normally present in the initial stages of the disease. To deal with this deficiency, scientists at the Universitat de València, Universitat Polytècnica de València, and the Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, at a laboratory level, created a highly sensitive biosensor. This tool allows the early finding of autoantibodies in very initial stages of the disease.
On a similar note, while researchers have proof that the composition of the gut microbiome is associated with numerous autoimmune diseases, comprehending how intestinal bacteria might use influence on the body’s attacks on its own tissues has been complicated. Novel research, available online in the journal Science Immunology, highlights one possible association between microbiota and autoimmunity.
Type 1 diabetes is said to be a childhood-onset disease. In this disease, the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for insulin creation. Human leukocyte antibody (HLA) genes play a significant role in how the immune system differentiates self from non-self. Individuals with particular variants of this gene are at increased risk for type 1 diabetes development. The authors of the recent report demonstrated that, for kids carrying these HLA variants, risk is also associated with how their bodies respond to commensal bacteria.